科学和宗教的关系

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relationship_between_religion_and_science
Relationship between religion and science

The relationship between religion and science has been a focus of the demarcation problem. Somewhat related is the claim thatscience and religion may pursue knowledge using different methodologies. The scientific method relies on reason and empiricism, religion acknowledges revelation, faith and sacredness. Some scholars say science and religion are separate, as in John William Draper‘s conflict thesis and Stephen Jay Gould‘s non-overlapping magisteria, while others (John Lennox, Thomas Berry, Brian Swimme, Ken Wilber, et al.) propose an interconnection.

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[edit]Perspectives

Medieval artistic illustration of the spherical Earth in a 13th-century copy of L’Image du monde (ca. 1246).

The kinds of interactions that might arise between science and religion have been classified using the following typology:[1]

  1. Conflict, stating the disciplines contradict and are incompatible with each other.
  2. Independence treating each as quite separate realms of enquiry.
  3. Dialogue suggesting that each field has things to say to each other about phenomena in which their interests overlap.
  4. Integration aiming to unify both fields into a single discourse.

This typology is similar to ones found in Ian Barbour[3] and John Haught.[4] More typologies that categorize this relationship can be found among the works of other science and religion scholars such as Arthur Peacocke.[5]

[edit]Conflict

A variety of historical, philosophical, and scientific arguments have been put forth in favor of the idea that science and religion are in conflict. Historical examples of religious individuals or institutions promoting claims that contradict both contemporary and modern scientific consensus includecreationism (see level of support for evolution), and more recently, Pope Benedict XVI‘s 2009 statements claiming that the use of condoms to combat the AIDS epidemic in Africa was ineffective and counterproductive.[6] In the Galileo affair, the acceptance, from 1616 to 1757, of the Greek geocentric model[7] (Ptolemaic system) by the Roman Catholic Church,[8] and its consequent opposition to heliocentrism, was first called into question by the Catholic cleric Copernicus, and subsequently disproved conclusively by Galileo, who was persecuted for his minority view.[9][10][11] Additionally, long held religious claims have been challenged by scientific studies such as STEP,[12] which examined the efficacy of prayer. A number of scientists including 

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